Why Static Isn’t Real Sharing

Photo of Curtis Lusmore Curtis Lusmore,

The static keyword has origins as far back as C, and has carried across to C++, Java and C#, among others—although its meaning has changed a bit along the way. In C# and Java, one of the common uses is for class-level sharing of members. Static members don’t belong to any instance, and can only be accessed directly from the class or from another definition in the same class.

And this is all well and good for sharing within a class, but the problem is that it doesn’t play well with inheritance, because static members cannot be overridden. And inheritance is another common method of achieving code sharing. Consider the following snippet, which shows how one might hope to override static members in C#.

public class Base
    public static virtual string Value => "Base";
    public static virtual void Display() =>

public class Sub1 : Base
    public static override string Value => "Sub1";

public class Sub2 : Base
    public static override void Display() =>
        Console.WriteLine($">>> {Value}");

new Sub1().Display(); // Sub1

new Sub2().Display(); // >>> Base

We would like to be able to override one or both of the Value and Display members, but unfortunately this won’t compile because static members can’t be virtual. Python, on the other hand, got this exactly right—thanks to the classmethod decorator.

class Base:
    value = 'base'
    def display(cls):

class Sub1(Base):
    value = 'Sub1'

class Sub2(Base):
    def display(cls):
        print('>>>', cls.value)

Sub1().display() # Sub1

Sub2().display() # >>> Base

So how come Python can do this but C# can’t? Notice that we used the classmethod decorator, not the staticmethod decorator. The classmethod decorator benefits from the fact that it is passed a reference to the class, whereas in the case of the staticmethod decorator you need to hard-code it into source. This distinction really highlights the real meaning of the word static—the static of static analysis, static type checking, static libraries, and static memory allocation. Static as in not dynamic, known before run-time, often at compile-time.

The reason why static members can’t be overridden is because doing so requires knowing at run-time which override to use, which goes against the definition of the word static. Even in a language like Python without compilation, the concept of static still exists and still has the same restrictions.

So if we want to get truly shareable members, both horizontally across members of a class and vertically across a type hierarchy, we are going to need another solution.